A. Causes: Branchiomyces sanguinis and B. demigrans.



B. Characteristics of Pathogens:

- This disease infects all types of fish that live in fresh water, and the target organs that are attacked are fish gills (filaments and blood vessels in the gill lamella). If the tissue and / or gill cells experience death or release, the fungal spores will come out and infect other hosts.

- The optimum temperature of pond water in the range of 25-31 oC with an incubation period of 2-4 days (depending on water temperature).

- Infection is chronic to acute with fish mortality reaching 100% in a relatively short time (1-2 weeks).



C. Clinical symptoms:

- Fish breathe with wheezing on the water surface and move slowly.

- Gills experience severe necrosis, are black red and eventually rot.



D. Control:

- Neutralize acidity and / or alkalinity of pond water through liming activity.

- Isolate sick fish and / or throw dead fish.

- Fungus hyphae that are still present in the gill organs of the gills cannot be treated, while spores that are in the water can be eradicated by immersion



several disinfectants, including:

 Potassium Permanganate at a dose of 1 gram / 100 liters of water for 90 minutes.

    - Kitchen salt at concentrations of 1-10 gr / liter (depending on species and size) for 10-60 minutes.