Columnaris Disease


A. Causes: Flavobacterium columnare or Fexibacterium columnare


B. Characteristics of pathogens:

- This bacterium is in the form of gram negative bacteria, the shape of the rod is small, moves by sliding, is found and lives in fresh water.

- This bacteria has a group of snails forming a group like column.

- Bacterial infections in fish are generally associated with stress conditions due to: changes in extreme water temperature and poor water quality in the pond.

Bacterial attacks often occur in groups of fish after transportation.



C. Clinical symptoms:

- there is a wound around the mouth, head, body or fish fins. Brownish white lesions then develop into ulcers.

   - Infection around the mouth of the fish, the infection looks like it is wrapped in thread (thread-like)
         so that it is often referred to as the "mouth fungus" disease.

- Around the affected wound is covered with bright yellow pigment.

- When infecting the gills of a fish, there will be damage that starts from the end of the gill filament and propagates to the base, finally filament decays and falls (gillrot).




D. Diagnosis:

- by observing preparations of drops hanging in a microscopic (400x) way to see the presence of bacterial columns in the target organ of infection.

- Isolation and identification through bio-chemical tests.




E. Control:

- Means of cultivation used are disinfected before and during the process of raising fish in the pond;

- Carrying out immunostimulant elements by adding vitamin C to feed regularly during the maintenance of fish in the pond;

- Avoiding stress on fish (physical, chemical, biological);

- soaking with 0.5% kitchen salt or 5 mg potassium permanganate for 1 day;

- Improving the quality of pond water as a whole, especially reducing the levels of dissolved organic matter and / or increasing the frequency of new water replacements;

- Perform integrated fish health management (fish, environment and pathogens).

- Benzalkoniumchloride at a dose of 18-20 mg / liter through soaking for 2-3 days


- Fish that are sick can be treated with herbs using plants:


  1. Rhubarb (Rheum officinale L.)

       treatment is done by counting 1 kg of rhubarb leaves until smooth and then mixed into 20 liters of water, use the water to soak the sick fish within 6-12 hours. Or it could be by chopping 20 kg of leaves, then mixing it into 20 liters of water to spread to the cultivation pond with a pool area of ​​1/5 ha.




2. Antingan (Acalypha indica L.)

                Treatment methods are 125-500 g of chopped dried leaves or 2 kg of fresh leaves and then mixed with the chopped plants into fish feed for 100 kg of fish by giving 3 times a day for 3 days.