Mycobacteriosis / Fish TB



A. Causes: Mycobacterium marinum (sea water) and M. fortuitum (fresh water)



B. Characteristics of pathogens:

- Is a type of gram positive bacteria, short and non-motile rod;

- Mycobacterium bacterial infection occurs generally in fish that live in an environment with calm / stagnant water. Fish species such as giant gourami and betta that live in calm water conditions are often infected with Mycobacteriosis;

- For rainfed ponds and garden ponds with minimal water sources, it is more susceptible to infection with this type of disease;

- Cultured fish infected with Mycobacterium show varied signs, but often also do not show clinical symptoms at all;

- Attack of chronic sub-acute mycobacteriosis, both in freshwater, brackish and sea water fish;

- The optimum water temperature is at a temperature of 25-35 ° C, but can still grow well at a temperature of 18-20 ° C.




C. Clinical Symptoms:

- Loss of appetite for fish, fish that are cultivated will become weak, thin, bulging eyes (exopthalmia) and swelling of the body;

- When the disease infects the skin, red spots appear

develops into wounds, fish fins and tails become thin;

- In the advanced infection phase, internally there has been swelling of the bile, kidneys and liver; and often found brownish white tubercles / nodules;

- Symptoms of mycobacteriosis are not always visible, and vary between individuals of fish that are attacked;

- Fish growth and development become slow, body color becomes pale and not beautiful especially for ornamental fish;

- Lordosis, scoliosis, ulcer and damage to the fins (broken) can occur in some affected fish.





D. Diagnosis:

- Isolation using selective media, and identified through bio-chemical tests;

- Detection of bacterial genes through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique;






E. Control:

- Use of anti-Mycobacterium fortuitum vaccine;

     Disinfection of cultivation facilities before and during the process of maintaining fish;

- Administration of immunostimulants (eg addition of vitamin C to feed) routinely during maintenance;

- Fish infected with the disease are immediately taken and destroyed;

- water use from ponds that are infected with the bacteria must be avoided;

- Improve overall water quality, especially reduce levels of dissolved organic matter and / or increase the frequency of new water replacements;

- Integrated fish health management (fish, environment and pathogens);






- Herbal treatments can be done using plants:

    1. Kipahit (Picrasma javanica)

By the way: Kipahit is chopped until smooth 1 g of kipahit leaves and mixed with 1,000 L of water to soak the sick fish for 3 hours;

     2. Kirinyuh (Chromolaena ordorata)