White spot or "Ich" or "Ichthyophthiriasis"




A. Cause: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis or "Ich"




B. Characteristics of pathogens:

- This protozoa has a round / oval shape with a diameter of 50 - 1000 mm, covered with cilia, the protozoa cell nucleus is shaped like a horseshoe.

- These bacteria are obligate parasitic, and in very malignant, severe infections can make death up to 100% within a few days.

 - This disease infects all types of freshwater fish, especially seeds (not scaly fish are more sensitive).




C. Clinical symptoms:

- Decreased appetite for fish, restlessness.

- Fish rub the body on objects that are around.

- The breathing frequency of fish increases the gill cover moves quickly (gasping for breath), often gathering near the incoming water.

- There are white spots on the fins, skin or gills of the fish.




D. Diagnosis:

- Visual observation of the presence of white spots (parasites) on the skin, fins and gills of the ichthyophthiriasis fish, visible white spots throughout the fish's body.




E. Control:

- Water temperature ≥ 29 oC for 2 weeks or more needs to be maintained

- Administration of immunostimulants (for example adding vitamin C to fish feed) regularly during maintenance.

- Increase the number of times the water changes in the pool.

- Transfer of fish on water that is free of "Ich" periodically which is adjusted to its life cycle.

 - treatment can be done by soaking using several types of disinfectants, including:

- Immersion in kitchen salt solution at a concentration of 500-10,000 mg / liter (depending on the type and age of the fish) for 24 hours, repeated every 2 days.

     - Treatment with herbs can use: Yellow Root (Arcangelisia flava Merr) by the way: The leaves and fruit are soaked, then the leaves and fruit are chopped until smooth and then mixed with water. Soak the infected fish into the water.